Thursday, April 19, 2018

Josef Rheinberger

So, why does Rheinberger's music sound like Mahler's? (okay—somewhat?)

And, how did Rheinberger come to write mass settings in Latin?

Let's gather some background information.


According to Wikipedia, "Gustav Mahler ([born] 7 July 1860 [, died] 18 May 1911) was an Austro-Bohemian late-Romantic composer[. He was b]orn in Bohemia ([which was] then part of [the] Austrian Empire)...and graduat[ed] from...Vienna [(then and now the capital of Austria)] Conservatory in 1878[.]"

More precisely, he was born "in the village of Kalischt [within] today's Czech Republic."


"Josef Gabriel Rheinberger ([born] 17 March 1839, in Vaduz [, died] 25 November 1901...) was an organist and composer, born in Liechtenstein[.]

"Rheinberger['s] father was the treasurer for Aloys II, Prince of Liechtenstein[.]

"Rheinberger...showed exceptional musical talent at an early age. When only seven years old, he was already serving as organist of the Vaduz parish church, and his first composition was performed the following year. In 1849, he studied with composer Philipp M. Feldkirch, Vorarlberg."


"Kalischt [, where Mahler was born] is a village...of the Pelhřimov District in the Vysočina Region [of the] Czech Republic.

"Vaduz [, where Rheinberger was born,] is the capital of Liechtenstein.

"Feldkirch [, where Rheinberger studied at the age of 10,] is in the western Austrian state of Vorarlberg[,] on the border with...Liechtenstein."

For Kalischt (Czech name: Kaliště), two maps are: 1.) fairly close-up, and 2.) showing its position in context.

For Vaduz, two maps are: 1.) fairly close-up, and 2.) showing its position in context.

Feldkirch quite easily can be seen on the close-up Vaduz map, perhaps with just a little zooming out.


"Charles V ([born] 24 February 1500 [, died] 21 September 1558) was ruler of both the Spanish Empire as Charles I from 1516[,] and the Holy Roman Empire as Charles V from 1519...The personal union under Charles of the Holy Roman Empire with the Spanish Empire was the closest Europe would come to a universal monarchy since the death of Louis the Pious (778–840).

"Before Charles [V]'s reign in the Holy Roman Empire began, in 1517, Martin Luther launched what would later be known as the Reformation. At this time, many local dukes saw it as a chance to oppose the hegemony of Emperor Charles V. The empire then became fatally divided along religious lines, with the north, the east, and many of the major cities – Strasbourg, Frankfurt, and Nuremberg – becoming Protestant while the southern and western regions largely remained Catholic.

The Demographics of "Religion in Austria [in] 1910 [include]: Roman [Catholics] and Eastern [Catholics: combined]: 90.9 %".

The same demographic article also contains a map (hand-drawn) of "Religions in Austria-Hungary, from the 1881 edition of Andrees Allgemeiner Handatlas. Catholics (both Roman and Uniate [i.e., Eastern]) are blue, Protestants purple, Eastern Orthodox yellow, and Muslims green."


"Until the end of World War I, Liechtenstein was closely the Austrian Empire[,]" due to the above geopolitical reasons.

Hopefully, this article can sufficiently answer the questions posed at its start—or, at least, put them into context!

Copyright (c) 2018 Mark D. Blackwell.

Monday, April 9, 2018

Indian song

All music from India is produced basically by Bollywood. This I learned from an acquaintance today.

As for the Bollywood song, this Wikipedia article provides more information:

  • "Bollywood is the Indian Hindi-language film industry, based in the city of Mumbai[;]

  • "Bollywood represents 43% of Indian net box office revenue, while Telugu and Tamil cinema represent 36%, and the rest of the regional cinema constitute 21%[;]

  • "Linguistically, Bollywood films tend to use a colloquial dialect of Hindi-Urdu, or Hindustani, [which is] mutually intelligible to both Hindi and Urdu speakers[.]"

Regarding the Gujarati, Tamil and Telegu film industries, for example, I found some Wikipedia pages, but they didn't say much about the songs.

However, Wikipedia has a list of Indian "playback singers" (whose performances we actually hear in the films) categorized by language.

These two interesting articles explain the fact that Hindi and Urdu are closely related.

Of course, Bollywood didn't create its music out of whole cloth.

Instead, I suppose that Bollywood merely pasted a relatively thin layer atop an already rich, multifarious, living musical culture—multifarious, because it arose from multiple locations and traditions in India.

My favorite album of Indian music is perhaps "In Concert Vol. 1 (Live)" by Ghulam Ali, who sings accompanied by harmonium.

Most of its numbers can be streamed in full with Amazon Prime.

Copyright (c) 2018 Mark D. Blackwell.

Saturday, December 2, 2017

Debian 8 "Jessie" on Apple iBook G4

Someone kindly gave me an iBook G4, the latest model before Apple switched over to Intel processors and started to make MacBooks. (See here for information and specifications.)

This iBook (14-inch "Snow," released July 2006, featuring a Radeon graphics chip) is model A1134 (order number M9848LL/A).

Its motherboard includes the PowerPC processor (an initialism for Performance Optimization With Enhanced RISC – Performance Computing). So the selection of suitable current operating systems is limited.

Already, the iBook was running Debian 7 ("Wheezy"). However, that release reached end of life April 26, 2016. Also, I wanted to update Wheezy's version of Firefox. So, I thought I would try to upgrade it to Debian 8 ("Jessie").

The upgrade to Jessie went fairly smoothly, except for one problem. (Presumably, you'll also experience the same problem, if you do a fresh install on an iBook.)

By default, Jessie's Xorg detects the iBook's Radeon graphics chip, and thus selects the Xorg Radeon X-Windows driver. However, it assumes—without verifying this—that the chip will handle 3D graphics (OpenGL/DRI2). Something about this hangs the iBook.

I found two ways of handling this problem.
  1. Tell Xorg not to use hardware acceleration with the Radeon driver; or
  2. Tell Xorg to select the "modesetting" driver instead.
Now, generally speaking, you can access the iBook's virtual terminals by pressing (simultaneously) fn-ctrl-alt-F1 (or F2, F3, F4, F5, or F6). (This requirement to press 'fn' wasn't obvious to me—at first.)

Also, if necessary, you can access the iBook's command line by:
  1. The second time the Yaboot loader pauses, type 'Linux init=/bin/bash';
  2. Type 'mount -no remount,rw /';
  3. (Here's where you type whatever you want); and
  4. Type 'exit'.
You can determine the graphics chip you have by typing 'sudo lspci -v'.

Then, per Debian's Xorg wiki page, do the following steps:
  1. Stop your display manager (e.g., gdm3) by typing 'sudo /etc/init.d/gdm3 stop';
  2. Type 'sudo Xorg -configure';
  3. Type 'sudo nano /etc/X11/xorg.conf'.
Under the "Device" Section, either:
  1. Uncomment Option Accel, and change its value to "False" (including the quotes); or
  2. Change Driver to "modesetting" (including the quotes).
BTW, I successfully used display manager lightdm and desktop environment lxde.

Copyright (c) 2017 Mark D. Blackwell.